Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe One of the most major turning points in the 20th century was World War II (WWII), which lost 39 million lives in Europe alone. Many of the seeds of World War II in Europe were sown by the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I. After WWII, Japan's economy boomed: it rivaled the US in economic recovery in just 80 years up until the end of the Cold War era. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you To prepare those on the home front for the air raids, the British government constructed public air shelters. The nationalisation of key sectors of the economy, such as transportation, power production, parts of the banking system and the extension of social security and social services, such as retirement pensions, family allowances, free or subsidised medical care, improved education opportunities, were crucial. 74, No. Since the years between World War I and World War II were rife with global economic instability, Europe had not had time to implement many of the advancements pioneered in the U.S. and elsewhere. Europe faced the threat of starvation, disease, lack of clothing and shelter, victors and vanquished alike. Physical and psychological childhood events are important predictors for labor market and health outcomes in adult life, but studies that quantify these effects in large samples that cover entire diverse populations are still rare. The Marshall Plan was significant in rebuilding Europe. Airplanes, ships, rifles, and ammunition were quickly produced, leading to America becoming an industrial powerhouse. WW2 involved Americans and citizens of other countries going to fight on fronts in foreign lands. It wasn't just about sending soldiers to fight. Although the Cold War undoubtedly had a considerable effect on such spending, with NATO and Warsaw Pact nations spending much more on defense per capita than before World War II, it is possible that defense spending would have been elevated post-war even without tensions between the U.S. and Britain and the USSR. Post-WWII Independence Movements Around the World: History & Examples, Approaches Toward the Cold War: Traditionalism, Revisionism & Post-Revisionism. The post-war economy initially declined as food rations, fuel shortages, and critical infrastructure damage abounded. Cameron, Rondo, & Neal, Larry, A Concise Economic History of the World, Oxford University Press 2002, THE ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF WORLD WAR II & REBUILDING OF THE EUROPEAN ECONOMY, THE DANUBE REGION: ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENTS, Literary Workshops & Viennese Literary And Musical Salon, LIVES OF THE NON-LITE IN VIENNA FROM THE AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN EMPIRE TO THE NAZI REGIME AND POST-WAR AUSTRIA, MULTI-ETHNICITY AND TRANSNATIONAL PEOPLES IN THE DANUBE BASIN. Propaganda is various types of media used to influence attitudes about a particular issue. people and Congress had to be persuaded that further assistance to Europe was in their own interest. Throughout World War 2, many countries used propaganda to persuade the public. American relief and rehabilitation grants helped ease the dollar shortagein the first two years. The US Airforce prided itself on strategic bombing of military and industrial targets, but the post-war strategic bombing survey showed that only 10 % of industrial plants had been permanently destroyed, but 40% of civilian dwellings. The Impact of WWII on European Society and Culture. Food production was also lower than it had been prior to the war, making it difficult for citizens to sustain a decent life. Memories of the economic distress of the 1930s and the war prevailed and no one wanted a repetition of these experiences. Table 2. The Marshall Plan, also known as the European Recovery Program, was a U.S. program providing aid to Western Europe following the devastation of World War II. How World War I Affected Society in Europe & The U.S. China's Communist Revolution Cause & Impact | How Communism Rose in China, Overview of Asia from 1945 to the Present, 1973 Paris Peace Accords Overview | Talks, Terms & Agreement, The Pacific Theater in WWII | Summary, Strategy & Outcome. The women went to work in factories making weapons, ammunition, and other war products. First is the contribution of economics to victory and defeat of the great powers in World War II. Core to this program was the notion that stability and security could not wrest within a system of capitalism; communism was the only viable ideology going forward. Some women served as snipers. CLEP Social Sciences and History: Study Guide & Test Prep, CLEP Social Sciences and History: Western Civilization Since 1945, The Creation of Israel in 1948: Timeline & Resulting Conflicts, Psychological Research & Experimental Design, All Teacher Certification Test Prep Courses. Britain dropped propaganda pamphlets across enemy lines calling for resistance against the brutal German regime. This would become known as the Truman Doctrine, which is a policy the U.S. still claims to abide by today. These efforts resulted in patriotism being infused into popular culture. Soon afterwards the Soviets set up the German Democratic Republic which lifted the Berlin blockade in September 1949. All rights reserved. The Pardee RAND Graduate School (PardeeRAND.edu) is home to the only Ph.D. and M.Phil. *******. Economically, the period after the end of World War II was a time for moving from the industry of creation for the purpose of destruction and into the industry of creation for creation's sake, resulting in an attitude of exploring new technologies and business models previously unheard of. World War II left the Soviet Union, especially its western regions, in a catastrophic state of ruin. The economy was plagued by bank failures and high unemployment rates. The conflict of world war II had a significant impact on civilian social and economic lives, highlighted through the German home front. However, as a result of the Marshall Plan and other economic aid programs, the European economy was able to recover. The war related deaths are estimated at approximately 15 million in Western Europe 6 million military, 8 million civilian, around 6 million Jews murdered in the Holocaust. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the 11 Many people felt socialism was the economic theory that would sweep the world. Multi-State Analysis of the Impact of Childhood Starvation on the Healthy Life Expectancy of the Elderly in China. In 1943 Germany extracted more than 36% of French national income and in 1944 30% of German industrial labour was non-German slave labour. Create your account. In its final form, the treaty placed full blame for the war on Germany and Austria-Hungary, as well as exacted harsh financial reparations and led to territorial dismemberment. In cities across Europe, infrastructure like roads and bridges and many homes and businesses were destroyed. Bookshelf After the war, the feminist movement gained momentum since so many women worked during WW2. Growing up in wartime: Evidence from the era of two world wars. With bombarded infrastructure, homelessness on the rise, and inflation beginning to set in, it was unclear how the U.K. would repay its debt. WW2 left behind much material damage, which drained the economic productive capacity of many European capitals and damaged the European. America invested in reconstructing some of the countries devastated by WW2, creating new export markets for the United States. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan. The European Union is a unique global organisation, an entity forming one of the . She has an M.A in instructional education. World War 2 generated numerous severe hunger crises, which resulted in many casualties. Nate Sullivan holds a M.A. American. Like America, European countries implemented massive propaganda campaigns to influence public opinion during the war. What Was the Marshall Plan? Rise Of Europe Outline Map Answers 128 199 192 46. 8600 Rockville Pike The ARP also helped establish the blackout, the practice of keeping things dark so the enemy could not see targets. The response was immediate and overwhelming. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0278716. Epub 2012 Nov 30. December 19, 2001. The physical and economic recovery of Europe was, despite the enormous damage done to the infrastructure, industry, agriculture and commerce, to be quicker than most observers expected and that of Western Europe was spectacular after the bleak and austere immediate post-war years. General Francos Spain was not invited and Germany had no government yet to represent it. These areas now have markedly lower per-capita gross domestic product and lower average wages. CLEP Social Sciences and History: Sectional Conflict in the U.S. CLEP Social Sciences and History: American Civil War, CLEP Social Sciences and History: U.S. Reconstruction. PMC Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. Here is a timeline of major events during the war. A greater responsibility of governments for a satisfactory economic performance was demanded. Some posters encouraged citizens to provide positive action by saving resources like energy and water. But in other aspects World War II differed from all previous wars. Tanya has over 16 years of experience teaching various social studies subjects. The History of Unions in the United States, What Is the Gold Standard? 1) Many social customs faded out, and society became more open (for a time) 2) Rapid development of new technology 3) Disruption of world trade. One impact of WW2 on American society specifically affected women on the home front. On the other hand they received credits on the central accounts and if they were large they received a portion in gold or dollars which enabled them to import more from hard-currency areas, mostly the dollar zone. Social Effects. During the war, more than 20,000 bombs fell on London alone, damaging 116,000 buildings beyond repair. Civilians on the home front also saw changes in the roles of women, as women went to work in factories. (continued) Looking at Japan's economic growth, it is hard . In that spirit, and with a recognition that a weakened European economy meant a weakened global economy, the Marshall Plan (also known as the European Recovery Plan) was put into effect. Many families on the home front were encouraged to plant Victory Gardens to provide more food for the war effort. Front Public Health. 2022 May 18. America used its footing post-war to become a global superpower. In addition to limiting food consumption, the government called for Americans to do their patriotic duty by rationing other resources. succeed. SHARELIFE-One century of life histories in Europe. World War I, changing American ideas of debt and consumption, and an unregulated stock market all played pivotal roles in the economic collapse. Africans resisted colonial rule from the outset, trying to hold on to their land, but were not strong enough to defend themselves against European conquest.