Estlund, D. (2008). Discrimination has not fallen short in any way and continues to build barriers for many people of color. In the achievement of this endeavour, first, I have examined the legislative initiatives of the NP in the period January 2012 - June . It is tough to validate an accurate and complete representation of a study. The body is responsible for implementing and drafting . (1993) have developed a system consisting of a propositional and depictorial partonomy (organization of parts) for reasoning, where the depictorial partonomy reflects the hierarchy proposed in representations for visual processes. Mansbridge, J. Secondly, response rate is low in this research. Princeton: Princeton University Press. On the benefit side, intersectionality, welfare state and democratization seem to deliver several of the same goods as descriptive representation, raising the question of whether descriptive representation is at all recommendable, given what we know of its costliness. Furthermore, women in the profession of politics often express a lack of interest in running for office and they are often subjected to the effect of career ceilings. 8. Though as they showed that areas with high crime rates were high regardless of ethnic group. Towards a European union gender equality index. In the wake of the Civil Rights Movement, African American representatives also began to enter Congress in increasing numbers. Both descriptive and inferential statistics help make sense out of row after row of data! View the institutional accounts that are providing access. Secondly, I will draw upon Phuong Ngo as a case study to describe how descriptive and substantive representation impacted MEM voters in his constituency. Martin, J. R. (1994). Democratic authority: A philosophical framework. In academic and professional environments, researchers often take on research projects before making definitive statements or taking action involving the subject matter. Advantages and disadvantages of descriptive representation Descriptive representation is where people are allowed to vote for leaders who they feel mirror their beliefs. (2005a). Descriptivists allow for change and are willing to forgo some rules to fit current norms. Companies can collect data first-hand based on stats and unbiased information. As graphical representations are exhibited through numerical figures, tables, or graphs, it usually involves fewer errors and mistakes. Social representation. However, what good representation should be is debated. 7. Your email address will not be published. It occurs when two or more parties are represented by the same real estate brokerage. Sawer, M. (2002). Should blacks represent blacks and women represent women? - Bone conduction headphones have many pros, including no ear wax build-up or infections, and they can be helpful for people with tinnitus. In some cases, representation can seem to have very little to do with the substantive issues representatives in Congress tend to debate. Institutionalizing intersectionality. How Do Parliamentarians Define Descriptive Representation? Wagle Estate, Thane-400604, Maharashtra, India. Bicameral legislature emanates from the concept of representative democracy. In Atlanta, there are many places to go and sights to see such as: Cola-cola factory, Cabbage Patch Kids Factory, Under Ground Mall, the Zoo, Atlanta Braves Stadium, Six Flags Over Georgia, Stone Mountain Park, and the Atlanta Aquarium, are all in or near the city of Atlanta. This form of research provides insight on human nature, we are able to understand basic psychological processes from this. In recent decades, Congress has become much more descriptively representative of the United States. These descriptive representations reflect the usage characteristics of the end product, what the owner (s) are going to do with the end product, or how they will use it once they get it in their possession. Michele L. Swers is associate professor of government at Georgetown University. Although the federal government of the United States is said to strive to construct a homogeneous nation when it comes to equal rights and opportunities for its citizens in different states and cities, there have been numerous historical occurrences that demonstrate opposing aims. (2005b). The documentary forces us to, The United States is the most racially diverse nation in the world. Easy to set up, doesn't require extra space. Vibert, F. (2007). Lexington: D. C. Heath. Though the theory was that crime was around certain citys and remained stable within certain areas despite changes in the populations where certain people lived in the community. Proportional representation is a system of political representation that has been growing by leaps and bounds. ), Deliberative democracy and its discontents. Following successful sign in, you will be returned to Oxford Academic. Women-centred and intersectional state feminism, state feminism inside and outside a welfare state context, and state feminism more and less democratized are compared, and it is argued that from the cost side, descriptive representation is more recommendable in a democratized, intersectional state feminist regime than in a women-centred technocratic one, whereas the effects of the welfare state variable on descriptive representation costs are more mixed. New York: Colombia University Press. Various reforms such as the Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Acts were implemented during the civil rights era as they helped promote greater inclusion and equity to, but not limited to, African Americans and Mexican-Americans. To browse and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds toupgrade your browser. Gendered Citizenship and the Politics of Representation,, Shipping restrictions may apply, check to see if you are impacted, Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. Currently, forty-six African Americans serve in Congress. The Pros And Cons Of Labor. Mellom fag og feminisme: Kvinneforskning i statsvitenskap. In Y. Galligan (Ed. Sex and social justice., CC BY. Political liberalism. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. world (descriptive representation), and the second focuses on effects of women's presence in parliament (substantive representation). Prescriptive analytics offers decision support for the best course of action to get desired results. "Share icon", Quan Do, The Noun Project. Descriptive research does not rely on only one type of data; it relies on both quantitative and qualitative research. Prescriptivists typically abide by traditional elements that strive to preserve long-lasting grammatical rules, word forms, processes or behaviors even if the rules are outdated. Goodin (2004) highlights that there is a tension between including members from different groups and subgroups on the one hand, and the practical ability to debate in the legislature thus rob them of the possibility of substantively represent their particular subgroup. Research Fellowship Program Other Program and Initiatives Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Advantage. The extent to which a representative resembles those being represented. Descriptive representation occurs when elected politicians are typical of the larger class of persons that they represent, such that blacks represent blacks, disabled people represent disabled people and so on. People still have a voice. Bacchi, C. (1999). The Great Compromise And The Basics Of Bicameralism, Senate Representation And House Apportionment, Summary of the Institutional Design of Congress, Types Of Representation: Looking Out For Constituents, Collective Representation And Congressional Approval, Summary of House and Senate Organizations, Continue With the Mobile App | Available on Google Play,, - Volume 55 Issue 2. The goal of a time restriction is to create a measurable outcome so that metrics can be in place. Journal of Political Philosophy, 12(1), 119. Measures like percentiles and quartiles become very useful in this area of expertise. Politics & Gender, 1(4), 622637. "American Government", OpenStax, OpenStax; Rice University. Professionals often use descriptive statistics to communicate simple trends within a data set. While Congress is dominantly a male, white institution, the creation of majority-minority districts in the early 1990s resulted in the election of African-Americans and Hispanics to Congress. in or register, The tyranny of the majority: Fundamental fairness in representative democracy. Racial profiling and stereotyping are just two forms in which minorities have been facing for years. $\endgroup . 518). What is a Descriptive Representative? The current reservation system keeps 13% of vacancies in government sector reserved for SC, 7.5 % for ST and 27.5% for OBC. For example, you work for a television station and want to understand your viewers better. Previous Figure Next Figure. Often times in American history, unselected natural characteristics such as race and ethnicity have served as keen factors permitting unequal treatment of individuals and at creating barriers placing minority groups at a disadvantage when attempting to practice influence over the government. Disadvantages of proportional representation. London: Routledge. thanked the writer. 9. With descriptive representation, decision makers will be more diverse and may therefore be more likely to listen to the input of more diverse citizens, to give and receive from them the kind of information that is relevant to their concerns, and to respond to their expressed needs (Broockman, 2013). In the end, there is however a set of remaining pro arguments suggesting that descriptive representation produces some exclusive benefits. The first disadvantage is that descriptive research requires more skills. Walby, S. (2011). Pros & Cons of Descriptive Research Varied. They may sometimes also include analytic work (comparing factors "" see below). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Sound bars have many pros, and they're the right choice for most people: Sound is still way better than integrated speakers. Guinier, L. (1994). 5 No. Aldershot: Ashgate. Pros are listed as arguments in favor of making a particular decision or action. 2. Because of such instances, today, many political representatives attempt to practice descriptive representation which promotes racial unity. Explaining Ethnic Minority Preferences in Bulgarian Elections, Descriptive Representation: Understanding the Impact of Identity on Substantive Representation of Group Interests, Politics at the Intersection: A Cross-National Analysis of Minority Women's Legislative Representation, Electoral Systems and Citizen-Elite Ideological Congruence, Womens Representation via Parliamentary Questions (with Sven Schiltz), Regendering party politics: An introduction, Religious Identity and Descriptive Representation, THE STATE OF DEMOCRACY AND REPRESENTATION IN AUSTRALIA, Voting Locally Abstaining Nationally: Descriptive Representation, Substantive Representation and Minority Voters Turnout, Activating Human Rights and Peace: Universal Responsibility Conference 2008 Conference Proceedings, Personal Attributes and Latino Voting Behavior in Congress, Between Science and Engineering: Reflections on the APSA Presidential Task Force on Political Science, Electoral Rules, and Democratic Governance. (1993). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. You do not currently have access to this chapter. I didnt have an opinion when surveys asked if I felt that I wasn't being treated equally to my fellow American classmate with all the same qualities I held. It doesn't answer the question "why", which makes it limited and won't come up with the cause and effect of a research topic. Thirdly and lastly, I will outline the implications that descriptive and substantive representation have on MEM representatives and voters, and the lessons learnt from studying Ngo as a MEM political representative. Lovenduski, J. Citing Literature. Access to content on Oxford Academic is often provided through institutional subscriptions and purchases. Towards a European union gender equality index. Pros and Cons of Descriptive Research. (pp. Equal outcomes on an individual level would have implied that each and every individual got the same bundle of goods and burdens in question. However, in substantive representation, it is not necessary for the representative to have a similar background or shared characteristics with the people he represents. While women and minorities remain underrepresented in Congress, some individual legislators have achieved seniority and enough political clout necessary to move into leadership positions. Letters can be written to their representatives. . Mansbridge, J. History shows how minorities within America have been marginalized. Some of the most important are listed below. Additionally, how much does the ethnic composition of a district affect the chances that a Latino candidate will be elected in a given district? Convenience Sampling Defined: Pros & Cons. An example of descriptive statistics would be finding a pattern that comes from the data you've taken. The purpose of this study is to examine the consequences of the level of descriptive representation of women in the National Parliament (NP) and European Parliament (EP) on the substantive representation of women. What Are the Advantages of Qualitative Research? Here you will find options to view and activate subscriptions, manage institutional settings and access options, access usage statistics, and more. Young, I. M. (1994). Experimental research offers the highest levels of control. . Reliance on analytical thinki ng. The purpose of descriptive research, aside from describing a certain population or situation, is to know the basic knowledge of a study. The Journal of Politics, 61(3), 628657. PR may encourage turn-out and reduce apathy. Of course, descriptive representation is not logically necessary to promote minority interests. Pros and Cons of different Prescriptive Analytics technologies | by AlainChabrier | IBM Data Science in Practice | Medium Write Sign up Sign In 500 Apologies, but something went wrong on our. Yet, demographically speaking, Congress as a whole is still a long way from where the country is and remains largely white, male, and wealthy. Ethnic Heterogeneity Ethnic Heterogeneity also known as ethnic diversity is another variable associated with social disorganization theory that I consider to be one of the. Unless specified, this website is not in any way affiliated with any of the institutions featured. Youve probably heard readers make that comment. The diversity of the country is not reflected in the U.S. Congress, whose current membership is approximately 80 percent male, 82 percent white, and 92 percent Christian. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Representing consumer institutions: The case of American health planning. Using an analytical tool such as a pros-and-cons list emphasizes the objective, "just the facts" side of decision making. (2005). The Costs and Benefits of Descriptive Representation: Womens Quotas, Variations in State Feminism and the Fact of Reasonable Pluralism. 4. systems than the old and traditional ones (Tawil, 2002). Mink had been interested in fighting discrimination in education since her youth, when she opposed racial segregation in campus housing while a student at the University of Nebraska. Caption. Does Descriptive Representation Facilitate Women's Distinctive Voice? The research can utilize methods such as surveys, observation, field experiments, interviews and number analysis. Olsen, J. P. (2013). 1. The innocent are no longer afraid to pursue their first amendment and to remind others that we are all created equal. PROS Better understanding Easy sharing of information Accurate analysis Sales analysis Finding relations between events Modification of data Exploring opportunities and trends Geographical visualization CONS It gives estimation not accuracy Biased Lack of assistance Improper design issue Wrong focused people can skip core messages The analysis will stress that the deliberative function of democracy requires de-scriptive representation far more than does the aggregative function. The safest position would be to say that results are "mixed . Cornell, D. (1995). tees, and voters weigh the pros and cons of descriptive representation, this analysis argues for attention to the specific historical contexts that make descrip- Descriptive representation should be judged primarily on this criterion. For discussions of gender quotas in corporate boards, see, for example, Engelstad and Teigen (2012). While descriptive statistics describe data, inferential statistics allows you to make predictions from data. Qualitative research, such as surveys and interviews, make information relatable to the reader. London: Sage. ), Redistribution or recognition? It is always recommended to visit an institution's official website for more information. The brevity by which descriptive investigations are carried out means that their costs are not high, compared to other types of investigations. The Oxford Handbook of the American Congress, Behavioral Approaches to the Study of Congress, Formal Approaches to the Study of Congress, Touching the Bones: Interviewing and Direct Observational Studies of Congress, Historical Approaches to the Study of Congress: Toward a Congressional Vantage on American Political Development, Campaign Finance in Congressional Elections, Descriptive Representation: Understanding the Impact of Identity on Substantive Representation of Group Interests, Theories of representation and the link between descriptive and substantive representation, Descriptive representation and the constituentrepresentative link, Descriptive representation and substantive representation of group interests, Voting behavior and representation of minority interests, Beyond voting behavior: Exploring the link between descriptive and substantive representation throughout the legislative process, Descriptive representatives and vigorous advocacy for group interests, The importance of institutional and partisan dynamics, Critical mass and institutional influence on descriptive representation, Critical mass and institutional power in congress, Leadership differences in substance and style, Congressional Institutions and Procedures, Managing Plenary Time: The U.S. Congress in Comparative Context, The Ties That Bind: Coalitions in Congress, The Development of Congressional Elections, The Development of the Congressional Committee System, Sectionalism and Congressional Development, Congress and the Executive Branch: Delegation and Presidential Dominance, The Amorphous Relationship between Congress and the Courts, Reflections on the Study of Congress 19692009, ' Descriptive Representation: Understanding the Impact of Identity on Substantive Representation of Group Interests', in George C. 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